In the agricultural sector, a small partworking population of England: it is approximately 2-3%. This is not so much, even less than in most highly developed countries of the world. However, while UK agriculture supplies the domestic market with more than half of the agricultural products consumed by the population of the country. In this article we will consider the peculiarities of this branch of the economy in Great Britain, as well as mention the products produced and the state that imports and exports.
Modern Agriculture in Great Britainis considered one of the most effective in the world. The level of mechanization of farming is very high here. While fewer people work in this area, the number of products on individual items is growing.
As of 2012, the United Kingdom is locatedon the 6th place among the EU countries for the production of agricultural products. The total area of agricultural land is 18.5 million hectares, that is 77% of the total area of the country.
Separate branches of specialization in the UK in agriculture produce more than the domestic market needs. In this situation, the number of employees in the industry is falling.
As for agricultural areas, their number is gradually decreasing. The land previously used for crop production is transferred to livestock.
The natural conditions that characterize landGreat Britain, to a greater extent contribute to the development of livestock. In the total value of agricultural products in Britain, livestock makes up three times as much as crop production.
Geographically, the agricultural specialization of Great Britain can be divided into the western part, the livestock sector, and the southeast, in which plant growing is more developed.
The largest number of farmed livestocksheep make up about 30 million units. Cattle also has a significant share - 14 million. In recent years, the number of pigs grown has increased. Today their livestock is about 8 million units.
Enterprises of agriculture predominantlyare engaged in the cultivation of meat and dairy cattle. The country gave the world many breeds of highly productive cattle. There are known meat breeds: Aberdeen-Angus, Shorthorn, Gerfordshire.
British breeding stock gives a considerable income. Throughout the world, you can see the herds of rocks that were bred here. For example, the largest livestock of Herfordshire cattle is not even in Britain, but in the territory of the former Soviet Union.
Poultry farming is actively developing in the territoriesaround the main consumption centers. Large and medium-sized cities are such centers. Poultry is grown on large, equipped with modern technology poultry farms. They also supply other poultry products.
The lands of Foggy Albion are rich in naturalpastures. Therefore, Great Britain has long been called "Country of pastures", "Kingdom of pastures". Here, as if nature deliberately created wonderful conditions for the cultivation of a multimillion livestock.
Under pastures and haymaking used for animal husbandry, to date, three times more land than under grain crops.
Ratio of pastures to the whole area of the countryincreases to the north. So, in the southeast part of them very little, but most of Scotland is occupied by pasture lands. Northern Ireland is occupied by 1/5 of them, the mountainous areas of Wales - by one third.
The entire area occupied by livestock is about 12 million hectares with a total area of 24,360,000 hectares (243,600 km2).
UK Agriculture in the 20th centurywas characterized by a wide spread of sheep breeding. Large flocks of sheep could be seen in every corner of the country. A long period until the 20th century England was one of the most important suppliers of sheep's wool in the world market. For all the time, about three dozen breeds of sheep were bred.
Since then, sheep breeding has begun to lose its position. Today, only 1% of all agricultural production falls on sheep wool. The remaining sheep farms work mainly for the production of lamb meat. The largest number of sheep farms is in Wales and Northern England. In the heyday of the sheep breeding in England, the sale of wool and wool products earned many. And in small settlements, and in cities business prospered. Sale of sheep's wool, one might say, has become one of the foundations of the country's present wealth. This fact is preserved in the symbols. So, traditionally, the Lord Chancellor is still sitting on a bag full of sheep's wool.
Sheep farming has ceased to be a lucrative business, and business in the UK is almost never built on it. A lot of small and medium-sized farms are on the verge of ruin.
The most important crop productionGreat Britain - wheat, rye, oats, barley. Part of the grain is imported. Used grain products for the production of cereals, cereals and the needs of livestock, that is, to feed livestock.
According to experts, Britain's agriculture is ready to supply wheat and barley to the foreign market following the results of a productive 2014.
The share of crop production in the country's economy is low, mainly the industry is aimed at servicing livestock.
As we mentioned earlier, the rural sectorthe economy manages to satisfy most of the needs of the British population in its products. So, oats and barley, potatoes are grown in sufficient quantities. Enough in the country of poultry and eggs, pork, milk of its own production. Beef and veal are produced, but also imported.
Separately it is worth mentioning the products of sheep breeding. The cultivation of sheep in past centuries was of far greater significance than now.
Half of the imported products areGreat Britain from the EU countries. Delivered to the country are products such as sugar, butter, cheese, beef, bacon, veal. The next most important importers are the USA, Israel, Argentina, Egypt, the countries of Central America and South Africa.
For export is crop production (barleyand wheat) and livestock (beef, lamb and others). Exports and imports of Great Britain are strictly regulated by the state and adhere to a very specific policy. Despite the fact that many goods are imported, the UK seeks to make agriculture a self-sufficient sphere of the economy.
State policy is aimed atmake agriculture products competitive in the foreign market and maintain an acceptable level of prices for goods for sale within the country. A system of measures has been developed to improve the living standards of people engaged in the agricultural sector and the productivity of the industry, as well as duties on imported products.
In the article, we examined the featuresThe agricultural sector is one of the most developed countries in the world - Great Britain. Today, the specialization of the country's agriculture is predominantly livestock. In general, we can summarize that the share of livestock in the country's economy is three times more than that of crop production.
It is noteworthy that agricultureThe UK covers a significant part of the needs of the British in the products of the industry. Many different products are exported, but also some products are imported.
Exports and imports of Great Britain (specificallyproducts of agriculture) are produced in different directions. The closest economic relations between the UK and the EU countries. Recently, other areas have been actively developed. Trade in pedigree livestock is established practically with the whole world. As a supplier of sheep products, the country lost its leadership, held for several centuries, exporting mainly lamb meat.
In general, the agriculture of Great Britain today is one of the most productive in the world. At the same time, less and less population of the country works in this field.
We hope that our excursion into the agricultural world of Foggy Albion has helped you to spend time with benefit and interest.