Leukocytes: what they tell

Leukocytes: what they tell

 

Each of us at least once in his life gave a blood test.What will tell the indicator of leukocytes and why they are so important for the human body, we will know today.

We get acquainted with the concept

White blood cells- white blood cells, which are reliable protection of the person from viruses and bacteria that come to us from the external environment or arise inside the body.

White blood cellscontain special enzymes that canabsorb,to bindandto splitalien microorganisms, and some forms of white blood cells produceantibodies.

Education and maturationleukocyte count occurs in the red bone marrow.

Leukocyte countblood depends on many factors: time of day, food intake, exercise, stress, and, of course, health.

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Types of leukocytes

Leukocytes differ in structure, function and appearance. White blood cells are usually divided into granulocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. Each species has its own functions in the human body.

For example,granulocyteshelp the body to recover from blood loss, these defense cells are involved in the processes of purulent diseases such as appendicitis, peritonitis, and their immature forms appear in the blood during leukemia.

Main purposeneutrophilic- phagocytosis, they absorb and digest foreign particles, they can also produce special antimicrobial substances. In infections, neutrophils accumulate in large quantities at the site of bacteria penetration into the body, for example, pus - this is nothing but the accumulation of dead neutrophils.

An increase in human blood neutrophilsmay indicate the presence of an infection in the body, such as pneumonia, pyelonephritis, tonsillitis, or sepsis. But not everything is so simple. In some forms of tuberculosis, hepatitis, influenza, measles and rubellaneutrophil counton the contrarygoing down. Neutrophil levels change when exposed to radiation, toxic or chemical substances, some anemias and leukemias.

Eosinophils"Enter into battle" in the human body with allergic diseases, infection with worms, some leukemias and tumors.

Major patrols on the border of health -lymphocytes, it is their function to check whether foreign molecules and microbes have penetrated into the human body. They also control the growth and reproduction of cells, make sure that they do not mutate and do not turn into a tumor.

Normally, the content of lymphocytes in the blood of an adult is 25–35% of all leukocytes. In children under 6 years old there are significantly more lymphocytes in the blood than neutrophils; after 6 years, the number of lymphocytes decreases and neutrophils increase.
Increase in the number of lymphocytessignals the presence of infection in the body, such as whooping cough, viral hepatitis, cytomegalovirus infection or tuberculosis.Decrease in the number of lymphocytescharacteristic of severe viral diseases, malignant tumors or immunodeficiency.

Monocytes- insufficiently mature cells that begin to perform their functions in the fight against foreign particles, becoming macrophages. Macrophages help lymphocytes in the work of the immune system of the body, normally the number of monocytes in the blood is 1-8% of all leukocytes.

Numbermonocyte increasesin some infectious diseases, for example, infectious mononucleosis, malaria, brucellosis, rheumatoid arthritis.

The percentage of different types of leukocytes in human peripheral blood is calledleukocyte formulawhich allows the doctor to see and understand the severity of a patient’s disease. Sometimes, to evaluate the dynamics and effectiveness of treatment, this analysis needs to be done several times.

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Read also: Urine analysis: we collect and read

What are the norms

The number of leukocytes in the blood- The level of the protective forces of the patient. This indicator is sure to interest the doctor who needs to make a diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment. A referral for a blood test you will be discharged in a hospital or clinic, in case you seek medical help.

The level of leukocytes in the bloodin a healthy person is not constant, it changes depending on the time of day, after eating, physical work or a hot bath. Therefore,the results of the analysis contain objective data, blood for the level of leukocytes is given in the morning and on an empty stomach.

Finecontentleukocyte countin 1 liter of adult blood is from 4-9x109l In children, this figure is higher, for example,in a newborn baby, the number of white blood cells can exceed the level of leukocytes in an adult 3-4 times.

Generallythe number of leukocytes in the blood of a childdepends on age:

  • on the 1st day - from 8.5 to 24.5 x 109 / l .;
  • in 1 month - from 6.5 to 13.5 x 109 / l;
  • 6 months from 5.5 to 12.5 x 109 / l;
  • in 1 year from 6.0 to 12.0 x 109 / l .;
  • up to 6 years from 5.0 to 12.0 x 109 / l .;
  • up to 12 years from 4.5 to 10.0 x 109 / l .;
  • in children aged 13–15 years from 4.3 to 9.5 x 109 / l.

The level of leukocytes in the blood changes during pregnancy, so in future mothers the number of leukocytes can increase to 15.0 x 109 / l. This is due to the fact that a large number of leukocytes accumulate in the mucous membrane of the uterus, helps prevent infection to the fetus.

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Read also: Biochemical analysis of a child’s blood: basic norms

If leukocytes are elevated

The increase in white blood cells is calledleukocytosisand this disease has physiological and pathological forms.

Leukocytosis is considered physiological.in the event that the number of leukocytes in the blood becomes more than 4-9x109l.a result of a completely normal situation, for example, after a hearty dinner, active physical work, psychoemotional stress or a long sports training session.Also, the level of white blood cells increases in women before menstruation and in the second half of pregnancy.

Pathological Leukocytosisindicates that a disease develops in the human body: a bacterial or viral infection, an allergic reaction, inflammation or purulent process.

To the mostcommon causes of abnormal leukocyte countin the blood include pneumonia, bronchitis, otitis media, meningitis, any inflammation,less often with the help of this factor is diagnosedleukemia, heart attack, severe blood loss, kidney failure, and diabetic coma.

Pediatrician of the clinic “Dobrobut” Babiy Galina Vasilyevna tells: “Leukocytes are, in fact, the protection and state of human immunity. When the "harmony" of the internal environment - leukocytes in the normal range. In the inflammatory process, the level of leukocytes increases significantly, which indicates their activation. With the predominance of the viral process, the level of leukocytes decreases, which indicates that the virus progresses to some cells of the leukocyte germ (defeat of some leukocytes by the virus). However, not all processes fit into this explanation.According to one blood, it is not rational and professional to talk about possible changes, especially in the children's body (children have certain features of the blood formula) without examining the child, not evaluating the blood over time, without leukocyte data. Routine analysis to determine the level of leukocytes - there is a complete blood count with the formula. "

If leukocytes are lowered

Decrease in the number of leukocytes in the bloodcalledleukopeniaand in most cases, evidence of inhibition of the formation of leukocytes in the bone marrow.

Most oftendecrease in the number of leukocytes in the blood is observeddue to radiation, taking certain medications, cancer, bone marrow damage, problems with the function of the spleen, rubella, measles, influenza, viral hepatitis, malaria, leukemia, etc.

A critical decrease in the number of leukocytes in the blood is calledagranulocytosiswhich most often develops as a side effect of drug use and isextremely dangerous condition for humans. Without the protective function of leukocytes, a person is very vulnerable, and even the most common infections can be critical for him.

Low white blood cell countcan be observed with fasting, depression, loss of strength, falling blood pressure, taking antibiotics, antispasmodics, anti-inflammatory drugs and anticonvulsants.

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Read also: General blood analysis. Blood plasma Biochemical indicators

How else can you determine the level of leukocytes

Levelwhite blood cell countIt is determined not only by blood tests, but also tests are performed on urine, feces, smears are made from the vagina or urethra.

Leukocytes in the urinedetermined by examining a urine sample under a microscope and measured by the number of cells visible in the field of view. Normally, a healthy woman shows up to 5, and a healthy man has up to 3 leukocytes in sight. In children and pregnant women, these norms are preserved. In the analysis of urine according to Nechyporenko, up to 4,000 leukocytes can be contained in 1 ml - this is a normal indicator.

The increased content of leukocytes in the urine is calledleukocyturiaand its main causes, both in children and adults, are inflammatory diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract. Thus, an increase in the level of leukocytes in the urine during pregnancy may indicate a fairly common disease - pyelonephritis. For the accuracy of this analysis, it is very important to pay attention to the correct urine collection.

Determining the level of white blood cells in a smearperformed by microscopic examination of a vaginal or urethral smear. Normally, in a healthy person, only single leukocytes are detected in a smear, an increase in their level indicates the presence of infection, for example, it may be a sign of vaginosis or thrush in women, inflammation of the urethra in men.
During pregnancy, the white blood cell count in the smear is checked regularly, since the vaginal infection is most dangerous especially for pregnant women. It is worth considering that the normal content of leukocytes in a smear during pregnancy is slightly higher (up to 10 in sight).

Leukocyte count increasein fecesspeaks of an inflammatory disease, most of all, this analysis is done in childhood diarrhea.

We think you will agree that such a factor aswhite blood cell countenoughinformative for the doctorwho need to diagnose and cure the patient.

Let us turn to consultations with specialists in a timely manner, and also be sure to pass all the necessary tests, because there is nothing more expensive in the world than health, especially the health of a child.

Leukocytes: what they tell images, pictures

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  • Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell

    Leukocytes: what they tell