> >Why do people need lips?
The mouth of people is surrounded by supersensitive and thin-cut pink fabric. What is its purpose understood BBC Future correspondent.
They - as if an extra detail on our face, then dry up, then crack in the winter, then we bite them. Seriously, what's good about lips? Birds do very well without them, the lips of turtles are so hardened that they also turned into beaks. And although the lips are in most mammals, we humans make up a very special class among them, since our lips are constantly turned outwards.
It turns out that lips are very important.
The first skill to use the lips, which we literally master from birth, is the ability to suck. In fact, this skill is so necessary for our very survival that it fell into the category of primitive reflexes. We are born with the ability to suck, it does not require additional training. This is true for almost all mammals.
The sucking reflex in combination with another primitive reaction, the root reflex, allows newborns to feed on mother's milk.The root reflex is triggered when the baby's head turns to that which touches its mouth or cheek. As soon as something touches the lips of the newborn, the sucking reflex is activated. Although after this the main work falls on the tongue, the lips play a vital role, tightly covering the mother's nipple so that the child can swallow.
That sucking reflex ...
This means that feeding, whether breastfed or bottle-fed, is by no means a passive behavior of a non-born baby. This process is more like a conversation, in which each side clearly performs its role in a complex dance, whose masterful choreographer is evolution. And the leading part in this dance belongs to the lips.
Of course, lips play an important role when eating other foods, as well as during speech. In linguistics, lips are two of many other places where sounds are articulated, or those points in the oral cavity and in the larynx, where an interruption of a stream of air inhaled from the lungs occurs. Squeeze your lips and you can make p, b and m sounds. To make f or v sounds, press the lower lip to the upper teeth.To pronounce the sound w (which is not in Russian - Ed.), Pull the back of the tongue to the sky, while the lips as close as possible to one another, forming a narrow slit through which air passes.
Of course, lips are useful to us in many cases.
Speech, as they say, is the most important component of human life, but not as pleasant as kissing. The custom of kissing is not universal, although it is inherent in almost 90% of world cultures. Charles Darwin himself, the author of the theory of evolution, drew attention to the fact that there are cultures in which there is clearly no custom to exchange kisses. We Europeans are so accustomed to kissing as an expression of affection that we think that they are an innate property of humanity, he wrote in the book On the expression of emotions in humans and animals, but this is not so. [They] are not known to the New Zealanders [Maori], Tahitians, Papuans, Australians, Somalis in Africa and the Eskimos.
Even though the habit of kissing is not universal, it nevertheless has biological roots that combine both hereditary impulses and developed behavior.By the way, other species also kiss. Chimpanzees exchange kisses as a sign of reconciliation after a fight, and bonobos (dwarf chimpanzees) monkeys also use their tongues to kiss.
Monkeys kiss too
In the February-March issue of the American scientific journal Scientific American for 2008, in the Mind and Brain section, writer and documentary filmmaker Chip Walters published an article Lip-line: why do we kiss? In it, quoting the British zoologist Desmond Morris, he proves that the manner of kissing comes from the habit of primates to chew on food before handing it to the young. Chimpanzee females, for example, are known for chewing on food, before swallowing it, pressing their lips to the lips of the smallest babies so that the food can get into their mouths. Thus, pressing lips to lips could become a way to relieve tension and nervousness.
The classic explanation for the effect of this effect is that the combination of lip stimulation with the sensation of the taste of food and even the simple touch of individuals to each other’s lips ultimately excites the sensation of pleasure. Add to this an abundance of nerve endings in the lips, and you get a ready-made recipe for ecstasy.
How lips work
Human lips are exceptionally susceptible (albeit sometimes slightly slobbery) parts of our flesh. The part of the brain that is responsible for recognizing touch or touch, it is also a tactile sensation, is called the somatosensory cortex. It is located in the parietal lobe of the cerebral hemispheres and is located along the so-called postcentral gyrus. Tactile sensations from all parts of the body are received and processed here. Each of them has its own area along the postcentral gyrus. The size of this area reflects the number of receptors rather than the surface area of the skin that can be touched. For example, areas reflecting sensations that come from the chest or abdomen are relatively small. On the contrary, the areas that treat the sensations from the hands and lips are simply gigantic. Just as the hands are one of the main tools for the knowledge of the world, the same function is performed by the lips.
As researcher Gordon Gallup notes, in those cultures that do not know kisses, sexual partners can blow each other in the face, lick, suck, or rub her or his face before engaging in sexual intercourse.But the so-called Eskimo kiss is not intended to just rub noses, as the first polar explorers believed; his goal sniffing is the exchange of smells. Probably, the act of kissing could arise as a pleasant way to sense the smell of a partner for a romantic relationship.
And now we will exchange smells ...
Gallup studied the manner of kissing in a group of people who know something about it - students of American colleges. He and his colleagues found that the main method by which women of college age determine whether their partner kisses well was based on chemical markers, taste and smell. Research participants stated that they would be less likely to make love to a man without first kissing him. No matter if people have pheromones, i.e. substances that are stimulated by the body, in particular, sexual attraction, or not, and whether we are able to catch them, if we have them, kisses stimulate the exchange of body odors that convey abyss of information about things like, say, the original cleanliness.
In another study that Gallup conducted, he asked respondents a question: did you find yourself in a situation where, when you were initially attracted to someone, you discovered after the first kiss that interest was gone? Of those tested, 59% of men and 66% of women gave an affirmative answer.
Although his studies were obviously limited to students of American colleges, a comparison of the results obtained with intercultural studies and observations of animal behavior suggests that close contact, which occurs during a kiss, gives kissing people the opportunity to sniff at each other. Whether we realize it or not, but kisses allow us to make a conclusion about potential compatibility with those we desire.